Friday, December 21, 2012

Finalists for the 2012 WI Soybean Yield Contest are Announced

The 2012 growing season proved to be a challenge for many growers and a bin buster for others.  Given these widespread challenges we again experienced great interest in the 2012 WSA/WSMB Soybean Yield Contest.  The top two entries in each division (in no particular order) were:

Division 4: 
  • Kevin and Dale Bahr, Belmont (planted Trelay 24RR19)
  • Nick Viney, Edgerton (planted FS HS24A01)
Division 3:
  • Josh Trautman, Edgerton (planted FS HS24A01)
  • Rick Devoe, Monroe (planted Pioneer 93Y43)  
  • *WI Bean Team (Adam Gaspar, David Marbuger, Scott Rowntree) Madison (planted Pioneer 92Y51) 
*The WI Bean Team is ineligible for official prizes as they are grad students of Dr. Conley; however their efforts are still unofficially recognized.  

Division 2:
  • Jerry Koser, Almena (planted Pioneer 91M10) 
  • Jim Kroeplien, Sheboygan Falls (planted NK S21-N6) 
Division 1: 
  • Steven Kloos, Stratford (planted Pioneer 91Y30) 
  • Paul Graf, Sturgeon Bay (planted Asgrow AG1031) 
The final ranking and awards will be presented at the 2013 Corn Soy Expo to be held at the Kalahari Convention Center, Wisconsin Dells on Thursday January 31st during the WSA/WSMB annual meeting.

The contest is sponsored by the WI Soybean Program and organized to encourage the development of new and innovative management practices and to show the importance of using sound cultural practices in WI soybean production.

For more information please contact Shawn Conley, WI State Soybean Specialist at 608-262-7975 or

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Drought Impact on Soil Rhizobia Populations

Severe drought conditions limited soybean production (6.2% per acre yield decline from 2011) across much of the United States in 2012. Though 2012 will soon be behind us, the implications of the 2012 drought may progress well into the 2013 growing season (Image 1). One area of concern among growers is the impact of the drought on soil microbial populations; most importantly Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Soybean live in a symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship with B. japonicum. The soybean plant provides nutrients and a protective growing environment for the rhizobia. In turn, the rhizobia “fix” atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia (NH3), which can then be used by the soybean plant. For this relationship to exist and benefit the soybean plant, effective nitrogen-fixing bacteria must be present in the soil in relatively high numbers at planting time (Conley and Christmas, 2005).

Image 1. U.S. Drought Monitor Map for December 11, 2012.
To date, little research has been published that quantifies the impact of soil desiccation (e.g. drought) on endemic B. japonicum populations. Pena-Cabriales and Alexander (1979) reported a biphasic decline in Rhizobium japonicum numbers in soils undergoing drying. The initial rapid phase of R. japonicum loss coincided with major water loss (simulated drought) whereas the secondary and subsequently slower decline in numbers was governed by the soil water content of specific soils. Pena-Cabriales and Alexander (1979) also noted that organic matter content provided little protection against R. japonicum desiccation and loss. In a parallel study Oso-Afiana and Alexander (1982) reported similar results when comparing strains of R. japonicum and cowpea rhizobia under desiccation. As one would expect, variation exists among Rhizobium spp. as well as individual isolates within species in their response to soil desiccation, though significant losses were evident regardless of species or isolate (Foulds, 1971; Trotman and Weaver, 1995).

To further complicate the situation, most soybean acres will be planted into corn ground that was subjected to severe drought stress. This suggests that excess nitrogen may be present for the 2013 soybean crop. In excess situations soybean will generally utilize the background nitrogen prior to initiating maximum N fixation. This may lead to luxurious early season growth, which in fields with a history of white mold, may cause problems if weather conditions are conducive. High soil N reserves may also lead to increased lodging. In either case, manage your soybean crop accordingly to minimize risk of white mold or lodging. This can be accomplished through variety selection (e.g. white mold tolerance, short statured soybean cultivars or good lodging tolerance), decreasing seeding rates, and proper scouting to time fungicide applications if needed.    

I am not advocating that every soybean acre automatically receive an inoculant treatment, however, the small amount of research that is available on the topic does suggest that growers may expect lowered B. japonicum populations going into the 2013 growing season.   

Literature Cited.

Conley, S. P. and Christmas, E. P. 2005. Utilizing Inoculants in a Corn-Soybean Rotation. Purdue Extension, SPS-100-W. 4 p.

Foulds, W. 1971. Effect of drought on three species of rhizobium. Plant and Soil 35:665-667.

Furseth, B. J., Conley, S. P., and Ané, J.. 2010. Enumeration of Soybean-Associated Rhizobia with Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Crop Sci. 50: 2591-2596.

Osa-Afiana, L. O. and M. Alexander. 1982. Clays anmd the survival of rhizobium in soils during dessication. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am J. 46: 285-288.

Pena-Cabriales, J.J. and M. Alexander. 1979. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am J. 43:962-966.

Trotman, A.P. and R. W. Weaver. 1995. Tolerance of clover rhizobia to heat and desiccation stresses in soil. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am J. 59:466-470.